Park effect

Park layout
        As before on the Wake effect, each wind turbine will slow down the wind behind it as it pulls energy out of the wind and converts it to electricity. Ideally, it would be preferable to space turbines as far apart as possible in the prevailing wind direction. On the other hand, land use and the cost of connecting wind turbines to the electrical grid would tell us to space them closer together.
        As a rule of thumb, turbines in wind parks are usually spaced somewhere between 5 and 9 rotor diameters apart in the prevailing wind direction and between 3 and 5 diameters apart in the direction perpendicular to the prevailing winds.
        In this picture there are placed three rows of five turbines each in a fairly typical pattern. The turbines, the white dots, are placed 7 diameters apart in the prevailing wind direction and 4 diameters apart in the direction perpendicular to the prevailing winds.

Energy loss from the park effect
        With knowledge of thewind turbine rotor, the wind rose, the Weibull distribution and the roughness in the different directions manufacturers or developers can calculate the energy loss due to wind turbines shading one another. Typically, the energy loss will be somewhere around 5%.

Video frames
- Wind farm optimization, Horns Rev: optimization of layout for wake losses
- Wind farm model: graphs for wind farm wakes
- Wind farm power prediction programs: some programs
- Example of modeled farm losses: graphs
- Offshore wind farm, Vindeby-DK (A): topology and measurements with masts
- Offshore wind farm, Vindeby-DK (B): graphs, stall machines
- Offshore wind farm, Vindeby-DK (C): wake measurements
- Offshore wind farm, Vindeby-DK (D): single wakes
- Offshore wind farm, Vindeby-DK (E): multiple wakes
- Wake turbulence intensity (A): models used for estimation
- Wake turbulence intensity (B): wake turbulence from models & experiments
- Offshore wind farm, Middelgrunden-DK: general description, spacing-wakes
- Added turbulence in single wake: equation for turbulence from measurements
- Turbulence in (offshore) wind farms: comparison of turbulence onshore/offshore
- Summary wakes and wake losses: table with summary notes